LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

Gallbladder removal is a commonly performed surgical procedure all over in the world. Today, gallbladder surgery is performed laparoscopically (key hole surgery) The medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.
The Gallbladder
The gallbladder is a pear shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver.its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver.bile is released from the gallbladder after eating ,aiding digestion bile travel through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) inti the small intenstine.
Removal of the gall bladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people
Gall Stone Disease
Gallbladder problem are usually caused by the presence of gallstones,which are small hard masses constiting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.it is uncertain why some people form gall stones.gall stones are more common in women,older patients and ethnic groups and associated with multiple pregnancies,obesity and rapid weight loss.there are no known means to prevebt gall stones
Stones tend to grow for the first 2-3 years,at which point growth tends to stabilize;85 percent of all gallstones are less than 2cm in diameter.most patients with gallstones remain symptom free for manu years and may in fact,never develop symptomps.however,the consequences of gallstones may be severe
They may be associated with brief episodes of biliary pain (misnamed”colic”).these stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder,causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain,vomiting,indigestion and ,accasionally,fecer ,the gallbladder may get inflamed (cholecystitis-acute of chronic )form pus(empyema)and may even rupture (perforation),resulting in spillage of infected material into the abdominal cavity.
If the gallstones blocks the common bile duct,a yellowing of the skin(jaundice) can occur;this is sometimes associated with inflammation of the bile duct system(cholangitis).small stones may blockthe duct of the pancreas,causing inflammation(pancreatitis)which is potentially fatal.it is rarely associated with gall bladderv cancer.
Diagnosis
• Ultrasounds is most commonly used to find gallstones.
• In a few more complex cases, the other radiological tests(e.g. MRCP, CT scan, ERCP, EUS)may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.
• Blood tests are required to suggest complications like jaundice,infection pancreatitis etc.
Treatment Options
Gallstones do not go away on their own .some can be temporarily managed with drugs or by making dietary adjustment such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease .asymptomatic patients usually develop symptoms before they develop complications. Therefore, with few exceptions, patients with asymptomatic gallstones should not be treated.
Until a decade ago , the prevailing surgical treatment of symptomatic gallstones was an open operation through an abdominal incision to remove the gallbladder laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that has become the gold standard for the removal of the gall bladder. Although there are many advantages to laparoscopy, the procedure may not be appreciate for some patients who have had previous upper abdominal surgery or who have some pre existing medical conditions . A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal is an appropriate procedure for you.
Most patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, if they are able to tolerate general anesthesia and have no serious cardiopulmonary diseases or other coexisting conditions that preclude operation. Some patients with very serious complications for gallbladder disease may not be eligible for laparoscopic gallbladder removal. In addition, patients in the third trimester of pregnancy should not usually undergo laparoscopic cholecystoctemy, because of risk of damage to the uterus during the procedure . Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the first trimester of pregnancy remains controversial because of the unknown effects of carbon dioxide on the fetus.
Alternative treatment options
Open cholecystectomy remain a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of patients who can tolerate general anaesthesia, but are not suitable for a laparoscopic procedure
Oral bile acid therapy for dissolution of gallstones, with or without extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL),provides a useful and safe but ultimately less effective ,alternative therapy for selected patients, especially those whose medical condition and/ or personal preference precludes operative cholecystectomy .The drugs available for this are not only expensive, but need to be taken on a long term basis and offer poor results
Benefits of Laparoscopic Surgery
• Rather than a five to seven inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
• Patients usually have minimal post operative pain
• Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
• Most patients go home within one or two days and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.
Preparation for Surgery
• The following includes typical events that may occur prior to laparoscopic surgery; however, since each patient and surgeon is unique what will actually occur may different.
• Pre – operative preparation includes blood tests, medical evaluation,chest x-ray and an ECG depending on your age and medical condition.
• After your surgeon reviews with you the potential risks and benefits of the operation,you will need to provide written consent for surgery.
• It is recommended that you shower the night before and the morning of the operation.
• After midnight, the night before the operation ,you should not eat or drink anything except medication that your surgeon has told you are permissible to take with a sip of water the morning of surgery.
• Drugs such as aspirin,blood thinners and anti inflammatory medications(arthritis medications)will need to be stopped temporarily for several days to a week prior of surgery.
• Quit smoking and arrange for any help you may need at home.

Surgical Technique
Laparoscopic surgery uses a thin, telescope like instrument called a laparoscope, which is inserted through a small incision at the umbilicus (belly button).the laparoscope is connected to the tiny video camera which projects a view of the operative site onto television monitors located in the operating room. The abdomen is inflated with carbon dioxide gas to allow your surgeon a better view of the operative area .three additional small incisions are made near the laparoscope through ehich the surgeon inserts specialized surgical instruments. The surgeon uses these instruments to remove the gallbladder .following the procedure , the small incisions are closed with sutures and covered with surgical tape. After a few months, they are barely visible.
Sometimes ,it may be necessary to perform an X-ray, called a cholangiogram ,to identify stones, which may be located in the bile channels, or to insure that structures have been identified. If the surgeon finds one or more stones in the common bile duct(s),he may remove them with a special scope (choledochoscope), or choose to have them removed later through a second minimally invasive procedure (ERCP),or may convert to an open operation in order to remove all the stones during the operation
In a small number of patients the laparoscopic method cannot be performed. Factors that may increase the possibility of choosing or converting to the “open” procedure may include obesity, a history of prior abdominal surgery causing dense scar tissue, inability to visualize organs or bleeding problems during the operations.
The decision to perform the open procedure is a judgment decision made by your surgeon either before or during the actual operation. When the surgeon feels that it is safest to convert the laparoscopic procedure to an open one, this is not complication, but rather a sound surgical judgment. The decision to convert to an open procedure is strictly based on patient safety.
Recovery after Gallbladder Surgery
• Gallbladder removal is a major abdominal operation and a certain amount of postoperative pain occurs. Nausea and vomiting are not uncommon.
• Once liquids or a diet is tolerated, patients leave the hospital 1-2 days following the laparoscopic gallbladder surgery.
• Activity is dependant on how the patient feels. Walking is encouraged
• Patients will probably be able to return to normal activities within a week’s time,including driving, walking up stair, light lifting and working.
• In general recovery should be progressive ,once the patient is at home
• The onset of fever, yellow skin or eyes, worsening abdominal pain ,distention, persistent nausea or vomiting, or drainage from the incision are indications that a complication may have occurred. Your surgeon should be contacted in these instances.
• Most patients who have a laparoscopic gallbladder removal, go home from the hospital the day after surgery. Some may even go home the same day the operation is performed.
• .Most patients can return to work within 7 to 10 days following the laparoscopic procedure depending on the nature of your job .patients with administrative or desk job usually return in a few days, while those involved in manual labor or heavy lifting may require a bit more time. Patients under going the open procedure usually resume normal activities in four to six weeks.
• Make an appointment with your surgeon as per his instruction(usually within 7 days following your operations).
What Complication can occur?
While there are risks associated with any kind of operation, majority of patients experience few or no complications and quickly return to normal activities.
Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are infrequent, but include bleeding, infection pneumonia, blood clots, or heart problems. Unintended injury to adjacent structures such as the common bile duct or small bowel may occur and may require another surgical procedure to repair it. Bile leakage into the abdomen from the tubular channels leading from the liver to the intestine may rarely occur.
Numerous medical studies show that the complication rate for laparoscopic gallbladder surgery is comparable to the complication rate for open gallbladder surgery when performed by a properly trained surgeon.

When to call your Doctor
It is important for you to recognize the early signs of possible complications.Contact your surgeon if you have any of the following:
• Persistent fever
• Bleeding
• Increasing abdominal swelling
• Pain that is not relieved by your medications
• Persistent nausea or vomiting
• Chills
• Persistent cough or shortness or breath
• Purulent drainage (pus)from any incision redness surrounding any of your incision that is worsening or getting bigger
• You are unable to eat or drink liquids